Facts & Stats

U.S. egg production and consumption continues to rise, as measured by the federal government and industry sources.

U.S. Egg Production and Hen Population

U.S. table egg production totaled 92.6 billion in 2022, a 3% decrease from 2021.  The U.S. had 308 million commercial laying hens at the end of 2022, down 4.5% from 2021. The daily rate of lay averaged 82 eggs per 100 layers in 2022. On average, each laying hen produces 300 eggs per year. The increased productivity of hens – due to improved health and disease prevention, nutrition, genetics, and flock management – is demonstrated in the graph to the right.

U.S. Egg Consumption

Per capita consumption of eggs has increased 4.8% since 2000. Per capita consumption is a measure of total egg production, less exports, divided by the total U.S. population. It does not represent demand. The decrease in estimated per capita consumption in 2022 can be attributed to decreased production due to highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) related issues.

U.S. Egg Production by State

Egg production is a significant contributor to the economy and employment in several states. The five largest shell egg-producing states are home to approximately 44% of all laying hens in the U.S., and the top 10 states comprise more than 65% of egg production. Click here for more on the local economic impact of eggs.

Housing Environments of U.S. Laying Hens

The number of hens housed in conventional cage environments is decreasing as some egg producers and retailers, food service providers and food manufacturers transition to cage-free eggs. At the end of 2022, 34% of all hens were in cage-free production, up from 28% in 2020 and 14% in 2016. According to USDA’s Agricultural Marketing Service, approximately 66% of U.S. hens must be in cage-free production by 2026 to meet projected demand.

As of December 2022, organic and cage-free shell egg production accounted for 34% (106.2 million hens) of the current table egg layer flock. Of this, 5.8% are organic (18.2 million hens) and 28.2% are non-organic cage-free (88 million hens).

Utilization of U.S. Eggs

Of the 261 million cases of eggs produced in 2022, more than half were sold as shell eggs through retail outlets. Over one-fourth of eggs produced were further processed into products for foodservice, manufacturing, retail and export. The vast majority of U.S. egg production is consumed domestically, with under 160.8 million (table eggs plus egg products in shell egg equivalent) eggs exported in 2022.