Facts & Stats

U.S. egg production and consumption continues to rise, as measured by the federal government and industry sources.

U.S. Egg Production and Hen Population

U.S. table egg production totaled 96.9 billion in 2020, down 2% from 2019. The U.S. had 325 million commercial laying hens at the end of 2020, down 5% from 2019. The daily rate of lay averaged 81 eggs per 100 layers in 2020. On average, each laying hen produces 296 eggs per year. The increased productivity of hens – due to improved health and disease prevention, nutrition, genetics, and flock management – is demonstrated in the graph to the right.

U.S. Egg Consumption

Per capita consumption of eggs has increased 15% in the past 20 years. Per capita consumption is a measure of total egg production, less exports, divided by the total U.S. population. It does not represent demand. The decrease in estimated per capita consumption in 2020 can be attributed to decreased production due to COVID-19 related issues.

U.S. Egg Production by State

Egg production is a significant contributor to the economy and employment in several states. The five largest shell egg-producing states are home to approximately 44% of all laying hens in the U.S., and the top 10 states comprise 63% of egg production. Click here for more on the local economic impact of eggs.

Housing Environments of U.S. Laying Hens

The number of hens housed in conventional cage environments is decreasing as some egg producers and retailers, food service providers and food manufacturers transition to cage-free eggs. At the end of 2020, 28% of all hens were in cage-free production, up from 14% in 2016 and 4% in 2010. According to USDA’s Agricultural Marketing Service, approximately 66% of U.S. hens must be in cage-free production by 2026 to meet projected demand.

As of March 2021, organic and cage-free shell egg production accounted for 29.3% (96.1 million hens) of the current table egg layer flock. Of this, 6.8% are organic (22.3 million hens) and 22.5% are non-organic cage-free (73.8 million hens).

Utilization of U.S. Eggs

Of the 269 million cases of eggs produced in 2020, well over half were sold as shell eggs through retail outlets. Over one-fourth of eggs produced were further processed into products for foodservice, manufacturing, retail and export. The vast majority of U.S. egg production is consumed domestically, with only 7.8 million cases of shell eggs exported in 2020.