Facts & Stats

U.S. egg production and consumption continues to rise, as measured by the federal government and industry sources.

U.S. Egg Production and Hen Population

U.S. table egg production totaled 99.1 billion in 2019, up 3 percent from 2018. The U.S. has 340 million commercial laying hens (December 2019), up 1 percent from December 2018. The daily rate of lay averaged 82 eggs per 100 layers (December 2019). On average, each laying hen produces 294 eggs per year. The increased productivity of hens – due to improved health and disease prevention, nutrition, genetics, and flock management – is demonstrated in the graph to the right.

U.S. Egg Consumption

Per capita consumption of eggs has increased over 16 percent in the past 20 years. Per capita consumption is a measure of total egg production, less exports, divided by the total U.S. population. It does not represent demand.

U.S. Egg Production by State

Egg production is a significant contributor to the economy and employment in several states. The five largest shell egg-producing states are home to approximately 46 percent of all laying hens in the U.S., and the top 10 states comprise 65% of egg production. Click here for more on the local economic impact of eggs.

Housing Environments of U.S. Laying Hens

The number of hens housed in conventional cage environments is decreasing as some egg producers and retailers, food service providers and food manufacturers transition to cage-free eggs. In 2019, nearly 24% of all hens were in cage-free production, up from 12% in 2016 and 4% in 2010. According to USDA’s Agricultural Marketing Service, approximately 64% of U.S. hens must be in cage-free production by 2026 to meet projected demand.

As of March 2020, organic and cage-free shell egg production accounted for 23.6% (79.4 million hens) of the current table egg layer flock. Of this, 5.8% are organic (19.4 million hens) and 17.8% are non-organic cage-free (60 million hens).

Utilization of U.S. Eggs

Of the 275 million cases of eggs produced in 2019, well over half were sold as shell eggs through retail outlets. Nearly one-third of eggs produced were further processed into products for foodservice, manufacturing, retail and export. The vast majority of U.S. egg production is consumed domestically, with only 7.6 million cases of shell eggs exported in 2019.